Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines and other medications to enhance the body's immune response to the target antigen. Adjuvants work by activating the immune system's cells, which leads to a stronger and longer-lasting immune response and can reduce the amount of antigen required in a vaccine dose. Adjuvants can be made up of various substances, including oils, aluminum hydroxide, and liposomes. Adjuvants have been used in vaccine formulations for over 70 years and are a critical component in the development of safe and effective vaccines.
a. Surfactants: They are used to reduce the surface tension of the water and improve the spreadability of the herbicide across the target area. Surfactants help break up the waxy cuticle on the surface of the plant, allowing the herbicide to penetrate the plant and be absorbed more effectively.
b. Spreader-stickers: They help the pesticide stick to the surface of the plant, reducing the runoff of the product and improving its effectiveness. Spreader-stickers can also help the pesticide spread more evenly across the target area.
c. Buffers: These are used to adjust the pH level of the pesticide mixture, ensuring optimal performance of the active ingredient by protecting it from degradation and reducing interactions with the environment.
d. Drift control agents: They help to reduce the amount of the pesticide that drifts off the target site, thereby reducing the risk of contamination of adjacent areas and environmental harm.
e. Defoamers: They help to reduce the amount of foam generated during the mixing process, minimizing any loss of pesticide due to foam formation.
Drift control agents are used in adjuvants to reduce the amount of pesticide that drifts away during application. This is important because if the pesticide drifts to unintended areas, it can cause damage to non-target plants, animals, and aquatic life, as well as pollution of soil and water resources. Drift control agents can be especially useful in situations where the pesticide is applied in windy conditions, or when it is applied to crops that are adjacent to sensitive areas such as water bodies or residential areas. Drift control agents can help ensure that the pesticide is applied accurately to the targeted area, while minimizing the potential for environmental harm.