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evaporative condenser

Evaporative Condenser

Evaporative condenser is a type of heat exchanger used to transfer heat from process fluids to the atmosphere. Unlike a direct air-cooled condenser, an evaporative condenser uses water as the cooling medium. The process fluid passes through a tube bundle while water is sprayed over the tubes. As the water evaporates, it removes heat from the process fluid. The cold water is then collected in a sump and pumped back to the top of the evaporative condenser, completing the cooling cycle.

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Evaporative Cooled Condenser Technology

Longhua specializes in evaporative cooled condensers and offers tailored solutions for our clients. Our evaporative condensers utilize advanced Evaporative Cooled Condenser Technology, renowned for its high heat transfer performance, water efficiency, and energy savings. 

  • Replace sensible heat exchange with latent heat exchange (advanced heat exchange mechanism, energy-saving and water-saving)

    Heating 1 kg of water by 1℃ removes 1 kcal of heat, while evaporating 1 kg of water removes 580 kcal of heat. With an 8℃ temperature rise, the ratio remains 70 times. It requires a small amount of circulating water, saving energy, and consumes a small amount of water, saving water.

  • Strong combination of heat release during condensation and heat absorption during evaporation (highest efficiency)

    Heat release occurs inside the tube during condensation, while heat absorption occurs outside the tube during evaporation, both undergoing phase change, resulting in the highest efficiency.

  • The lower limit temperature for cooling is the wet-bulb temperature (strong heat exchange driving force or low cooling temperature)

    The wet-bulb temperature is generally 8-14℃ lower than the dry-bulb temperature, even lower than the condensing temperature compared to water cooling.

  • The system is simple and all heat exchange occurs in one stage (direct heat exchange)

    Both belong to direct condensation with direct air cooling, either in parallel or in series, keeping the system simple and consistent.

Product Structure of Evaporative Condenser

Main components

1. Coil: The coil is the main heat exchange surface of the evaporative condenser. It consists of a series of horizontal tubes with fins that increase the surface area exposed to the air and enhance heat transfer.

2. Fan system: The fan system creates a draft that drives air through the coil and provides the necessary heat transfer surface for evaporation, making it an essential component of the evaporative condenser.

3. Water distribution system: The water distribution system sprays water over the coil and uniformly distributes the water over its surface. Water distribution systems can vary from a simple gravity-fed system to a high-pressure pump system that delivers water to spray nozzles.

4. Sump: The sump is the collection basin that holds the cooled water and receives the recirculated water that is used to spray over the coil.

5. Pump: The pump is responsible for pumping the water from the sump to the spray nozzles, maintaining the required water flow rate.

6. Control system: The control system regulates the evaporative condenser's fan speed, water flow rate and temperature, ensuring that the system operates efficiently.

Product Structure of Evaporative Condenser

Superiority of Longhua Evaporative Type Condenser


1.High heat transfer performance with lower back pressure.

  • Condensation occurs inside the tube, while evaporation occurs outside.

  • Heat transfer performance depends on the wet bulb temperature, which is generally 8-14℃ lower than the dry bulb temperature.

  • Single-stage heat exchange.

2. Water conservation.

  • The circulation water is only 1/5 of the water cooling circulation water, and the water consumption can be saved by more than 30% compared with the water condensing steam system

3. Energy-saving.

  • The circulating water volume of the evaporative condenser is small, with low head, resulting in significantly reduced power consumption of the circulating water pump compared to water-cooled systems, saving 20-40% of electricity.

4. Low shipping costs, small footprint, short installation time, and simple and reliable operation and maintenance.

  • The evaporative condenser system replaces the condenser + cooling tower + circulating water piping network of the water-cooled system.

5. Customizable and designed according to customer needs

6. Low fouling coefficient, small temperature difference at the end, lightweight.

7. Multiple tube materials are available for selection, including brass tubes, stainless steel tubes, and carbon steel tubes.

Operating Principle of Evaporative Condenser

Evaporative condensers operate on the principle of evaporative cooling, where water is used as the cooling medium to remove heat from process fluids.  The cooled water is then recycled and reused, making it an energy-efficient cooling solution.

The operational principles of evaporative-cooled condensers are as follows:

  • 1. The exhaust steam of the low-pressure cylinder of the steam turbine enters the tube of the heat exchange module by condensing and releasing heat;

  • 2. The spray water outside the pipe absorbs the condensation and exothermic evaporation of the steam in the pipe, which is discharged into the atmosphere under the action of the fan, and the water lost by evaporation is supplemented by the water supply pipeline; The unevaporated water is recycled into the water tank by the action of the water collector.

  • 3. Condensate water is collected in the exhaust steam unit hot well through the pipeline.

  • 4. Non-condensable gas is discharged by the vacuum device.

An evaporative condenser is typically made up of a tube bundle that is arranged in horizontal coils through which a warm fluid circulates. Water is sprayed over the tubes and evaporates, removing heat from the process fluid. The latent heat required to evaporate the water comes from the heat rejected by the process fluid being condensed. As the water evaporates, it becomes saturated with heat and is collected at the bottom of the condenser. It is then pumped to the top of the condenser, where it is sprayed again to continue the heat transfer process. 

Evaporative type condensers can be used in both closed and open-loop systems, depending on the application. They are used in various industries to cool process fluids in refrigeration, air conditioning, and power generation applications. They offer several advantages, including high efficiency and energy savings, and are suitable for use in areas with limited space. 

Evaporative Type Condenser Anticorrosion

Evaporative type condensers require anti-corrosion measures due to the presence of water in the system. Water can lead to corrosion of metal components over time, especially in environments with high humidity or when the water used in the system contains impurities or chemicals. Anti-corrosion measures are implemented to protect the evap condenser's structural integrity, ensuring its longevity and optimal performance.

Longhua, a dedicated manufacturer of evaporative cooled condensers, prioritizes anti-corrosion measures for Evaporative Type Condensers. During the production process, we conduct overall hot-dip galvanizing anti-corrosion treatment on the heat exchange module. Our anti-corrosion treatment procedures are outlined below:

Degreasing with acidic degreasing agent (oil removal)Rust removal with composite rust remover → Warm water rinsing → Clear water rinsing → Assist plating (assist plating agent removes iron) → Drying → Hot-dip galvanizing (thickness 80-120μm, metal bonding layer 5μm) → Water cooling → Passivation → Inspection → Forming


Application of Evaporative Condenser

As one of the industrail evaporative cooling systems, evaporative condensers have a wide range of applications in industries such as refrigeration, air conditioning, and power generation. 

  • Refrigeration: Evaporative condensers are commonly used in commercial and industrial refrigeration systems, including food processing facilities, supermarkets, and cold storage warehouses. They are used to condense refrigerant gases, such as ammonia or freon, and remove heat from the process.

  • Air conditioning: Evaporative condensers are also used in air conditioning systems to reject heat from the air conditioning process and improve system efficiency. They are often used for large central air conditioning systems in commercial buildings.

  • Power generation: Evaporative condensers are used in power plants to cool the condenser water in a steam power cycle. They are used to remove heat from the steam turbine and condense the steam back into water to be reused in the cycle.

  • Industrial processes: Evaporative condensers have found applications in industrial processes such as chemical and petrochemical processing, oil refining, and paper manufacturing. They are used to cool process fluids and improve process efficiency.

In summary, evaporative condensers are widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning, power generation, and industrial processes where efficient cooling and heat rejection are essential.

Common Advantages of Evaporative Condenser

  • Energy efficiency: Evaporative condensers are highly energy-efficient, as they utilize the latent heat of evaporation to remove heat from the system, rather than relying solely on mechanical refrigeration.

  • Reduced water usage: As evaporative condensers continuously recycle water through the system, they require significantly less water than traditional cooling towers.

  • Lower operating costs: Due to their energy efficiency and reduced water usage, evaporative condensers can result in lower overall operating costs compared to other cooling methods.

  • Reduced maintenance: Because they rely on natural processes to remove heat from the system, evaporative condensers require less maintenance and have longer lifespans than other cooling systems.

  • Increased capacity: Evaporative condensers have the ability to handle large cooling loads and can be scaled up or down to meet changing demand.

  • Environmentally friendly: With lower energy usage and reduced water consumption, evaporative condensers are considered to be environmentally friendly and sustainable cooling options.

  • Improved air quality: Evaporative condensers can help to improve air quality by reducing the use of refrigerants and other chemicals that can be harmful to the environment and human health.

Features of Evaporative Condenser


Heat transfer: Evaporative condensers use the principle of heat transfer in order to remove heat from a process or system.


Water distribution system: It is crucial for an evaporative condenser to have an efficient water distribution system in order to ensure that all heat transfer surfaces are adequately covered with water.


Fan: Evaporative condensers have a fan that circulates air over the water distribution system and heat transfer surfaces.


Air inlet system: The air inlet system is designed in such a way that it allows for maximum air flow and low resistance to the airflow.


Water basin: An evaporative condenser has a water basin that collects hot water from the process or system and allows it to dissipate heat through evaporation.


Corrosion resistance: The materials used to build an evaporative condenser are often chosen for their ability to resist corrosion.


Water treatment system: In order to maintain the efficiency of an evaporative condenser, a water treatment system is often used to prevent mineral build-up and maintain water quality.


Automatic controls: Many modern evaporative condensers are equipped with automatic controls that monitor and adjust the water and air flow to ensure optimum performance.

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